Innovations That Are Successful and Not
There are several different types of innovation. We have already talked about certain types in the previous part of the article, but there are a lot of classifications.
They can be divided into the incremental and radical ones. The incremental ones are partial local changes that do not lead to any dramatic consequences. The radical innovations usually change the state of things. They are akin to the revolutions in certain spheres of human life. Therefore, the success criteria for incremental and radical innovations may be quite different. After all, if something changes radically, then there may be failures at some stage of these changes. And this does not diminish their role and significance.
Several decades ago, mobile phones appeared, and this has greatly changed our lives. In many ways, this has been a radical innovation, at least in the scale of the development of communication technologies.
But we still remember that in the early years, the quality of the mobile communication was not very good, the coverage of the network was not everywhere, the phones themselves could not work well, they were quite cumbersome and not very convenient. Can this be considered as a successful innovation or not?
Undoubtedly, it is successful in the sense of radicalism, because a new direction of the communication development appeared, a new dimension within which people could communicate with each other.
On the other hand, a stable connection did not appear immediately, at first, there were a lot of mistakes and failures. Therefore, from this point of view, this innovation can be considered unsuccessful at the initial stages.
Thus, for each type of innovation, the success criteria are different. For a radical one, it is important that it changes the perception of the region, shows new directions for the development. If there are any local failures on this path, it is not so scary as a whole.
And for the incremental innovations, everything is a little different, and details are important there. If today a company produces a new model of a mobile phone, then it should be better than the previous one in some detail so that this innovation turns out to be successful. In this sense, there are many examples of successful and unsuccessful innovations.
For example, in the early 2000s, in addition to the widely known Android, another operating system was used for smartphones, Symbian. At some point, they were approximately the same and used in a certain line of mobile phones. But in the end, Symbian almost died and degraded. Today no one remembers it, while Android has captured the market and is successfully developing. In this sense, Symbian can be called an example of the unsuccessful innovation, as it has lost popularity and ceased to develop at all.
If we generalize, what can be called the most important criterion for the success of innovation? Ultimately, albeit not at the earliest stage, but there must be a demand for it, it should be useful and necessary. In addition, it is important to be able to assess the effectiveness in solving this problem – you can recall the case with the operating systems for mobile phones. And, of course, an important role is played by how these innovations are promoted. Promotion is very important (especially for innovations oriented to the mass consumer) since even if innovation is breakthrough, but no one knows about it, it may remain without the attention it deserves.
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Innovation of the Environment
The environment, information field, team – all this plays a huge role in the development and implementation of innovations.
In the innovative environment, the birth processes and the practical implementation of new ideas are easier: they are helped by an inspiring atmosphere. But despite the crucial role of the innovation climate, the key psychological factor in the success of the innovation process is personal characteristics of all those who are involved in it. A person with a high level of innovation will still seek ideas and come up with how to implement them even in an absolutely anti-innovation community.
Today the Internet is an important factor that stimulates the global innovation process: in many respects, it plays the role of a facilitator and an amplifier of the innovation processes. It creates that modern high-tech environment where the innovation is born and spread.
Fifty years ago, if a person was interested in new ideas, he or she had to either look for the same people or go to the library and look for the information on the area of interest. Now, you can find almost any information on the Internet within a few minutes. This allows anyone to immerse themselves into any original ideas and creates ample opportunities for applying innovative abilities of a person and realizing their own and others' ideas.
Scientific literature presents various models of the innovation processes as well as the classifications of these models. We think that the selection of three models differing in a depth analysis of the creative innovation process is the most successful.
The first model includes only the stage of introducing a new idea: if there is an original solution to the problem, then it simply needs to be taken and implemented.
In the second model, in addition to realizing the idea, the stage of its generation is also included. This is due to the creative activity of the author of this idea: a person came up with an idea (or creatively reworked what was available at his or her disposal), and then this idea was realized either by themselves or by another participant.
The third model is cyclical. The analysis includes not only the stages of the idea generation and its modification as well as its subsequent implementation but also how the implemented idea, which has already spread, changes people's outlook, stimulates further creative or innovative work.
In the third model, the Internet and information technologies play a very important role. If earlier people did not learn about innovations at once or did not recognize them at all, today the news about them spreads very quickly, in a matter of hours or days. This has simplified and shortened the innovation process. Now people have to just surf the Internet, look for new ideas and sometimes implement them right there. As a student, you can easily buy an essay or find any necessary information on the Internet.
What are Facebook and other social networks if not innovations? A special breakthrough in the technological development was not required for their implementation. Just a new combination of the already well-known facts has given birth to a new format of social networks that have grown and become extremely popular. Now, it changes the lives of people around the world.
Modern Research of Innovations
Today the innovation and how it relates the creativity is being actively studied in psychology. There are a number of studies that give conflicting results. According to some of them, there is a significant correlation between the innovation and the creativity, according to others – no.
One of the important areas of the research is also the correlation of the concepts of "innovation" and "the search for novelty." The search for novelty is primarily connected with behavioral acts of a person, helping him or her to become acquainted with the new and creating conditions for this. And the innovation is more a person's ability to identify this new, understand it, and also to ensure its practical use. For example, in order to find something new on the Internet (to show one's innovativeness), you must first turn on the computer, start looking, that is, behaviorally prepare and ensure this process.
In the field of the organizational innovation, ways are explored to improve the climate in a company, optimize its structure, make innovations easier to be born and implemented and to inspire employees.
The phenomenon of a pseudo-innovation is known. This means that it is not really an innovation, although it is actively promoted as such. For example, advertising an "innovative" model of an SUV, in which nothing fundamentally new has appeared, except for a different wheel diameter and upholstery. When such formal changes are presented as an innovation, it turns out that we are deceived.
But on the other hand, even these pseudo-innovations, not being a serious change, can influence the minds and lead to the truly innovative ideas. Therefore, they have a very contradictory role: on the one hand, they misinform us, on the other hand, they can stimulate the emergence of the new at the information and motivational levels.
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