In the college, regardless of your subject field, you can come across writing of different kinds of academical works such as the research papers, essays of various types, and dissertation as the most difficult types of academical papers. In that regard, some of the points assessed by a professor are grammar, the overall text flow, and how the materials are presented in the work in general.
Most of the students make one typical mistake that can cost them a lot at the end; it is the multiple repetitions throughout the text that make it flooded with the same words. That is why it is of a high priority to know or repeat one more time the main means to avoid such situations.
Let us look at some sentences in the course of a dialogue about the hat between two friends:
Malcolm: Tom bought a new hat, look. Does he look different than before?
Jenny: No, I do not think so.
Malcolm: It is so nice. I really like it!
Jenny: Hmm, maybe, I rather like it too.
Malcolm: But look, it is a bit bigger than his previous one.
In most of these sentences, the words “hat” and “Tom” are left out or replaced by a pronoun. It was done to avoid repetition when there is no necessity in it. In this case, for instance, there is no special need to repeat every time the word “hat.” From the context, one can easily understand what the pronoun replaces.
However, sometimes, there is no way to avoid repetition for the sake of clarity of the meaning. Likewise, the repetition can be left to emphasize the exact thing, feeling, person, etc.
Example: This hat is made of felt, the best felt you can get.
In this sentence, it is possible to say the best you can get, but the man chooses to emphasize that this hat is made of felt; it is important in this context.
Replacing and Leaving out Nouns
Some phrases with a noun can be replaced as it was shown already in the example with hat or the noun can be just omitted:
|A number||I have got only one letter from father. – No, I have found two, look.|
|A quantifier||Do you want milk? – I would like to drink some.|
|This, that, these, or those||My previous sunglasses cost a good deal of money, but these are cheap enough.|
|A superlative adjective||Which girl in our class is the most beautiful?|
Words and Phrases Omission After the Auxiliary
One can end the sentence just with an auxiliary verb. But it can be only if the meaning is obvious from the whole sentence.
Example: I am being late! – Yes, it looks as if you are.
Nota Bene: The auxiliary verb can bear positive or negative meaning. A positive auxiliary cannot be a short form (Example: I am being late! – Yes, it looks as if
As a rule, and as you have already understood, everything after auxiliary is left out. However, occasionally we put two auxiliary verbs.
Example: I do not know if I’m still in love with you. – You might be. -> In this sentence, “might” modifies “to be”, hence it must be left.
Additional Structures Where Words Can Be Left Out
- Short questions. The interrogatory sentences with yes/no answer consist of the auxiliary + subject. (Example: I have been to Singapore yesterday. Have you? – Yes, I have);
- A to-infinitive clause. When there is no special occasion to say again the same to-infinitive clause, we can leave it out. (Example: Would you like to marry me? – I would);
- The main verb omission. We can omit the main verb in some contexts. (Example: We decided to go home, then to the theater).
If you are a student of media faculty then it would be interesting for you to get to know how you can sound more concise in your posts and articles. In English, there are some cases where words are omitted just to save space:
- Signs and labels. Different signs and labels usually have to provide the reader only with necessary information expressed in few words (Example: Office, No entry, Airmail, Sold)
- Newspapers headlines. Here the articles (a/an) and the verb to be are frequently left out of headlines. The simple present tense is used there where the present perfect must be (Example: People die = People have died). A passive participle on its own is often used instead of the present perfect passive (Example: Eight arrested in raid. = Eight people have been arrested in a raid). A to-infinitive construction is sometimes used with a future meaning (Example: Company to open = A company is going to open.)
- Instructions. The article the is omitted from time to time in the instructions (Example: Open battery compartment cover by pushing in direction of arrow).
- Note style. When people are going to notify someone about something in a quick manner, then they can leave a note: very brief message. (Example: Arrived in time Sunday. Room OK, neighbors horrible, no sun, lots tourists, going on excursion tomorrow).
Nevertheless, this style is regarded as rather impolite in official letters or simply in those where there is enough space for full sentence.